E-6 color reversal development: Fuji recipes?

Discussion in 'Color: Film, Paper, and Chemistry' started by Heinz_Anderle, Jan 3, 2008.

  1. Heinz_Anderle

    Heinz_Anderle Member

    Oct 21, 2007
    It might be of interest for those who want to prepare their own E-6 solutions from raw chemicals that Fuji Photo Film discloses in their US Patent 6,720,134 (about Provia 400X) the exact composition of such solutions. There are some noteworthy differences to the E-6 recipes given by Derek Watkins (www.opie.net/orphy/photo/dr/wkft-e6.html not only in the replacement of sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) by Nitrilo-N,N,N-trimethylene phosphonic acid pentasodium salt, but also a higher concentrated and differently composed first developer with a shorter development time (4 min instead of 6 min given for the Fuji Hunt E-6 process manual).

    Of particular relevance is the reversal bath which is based on the non-hazardous stannous chloride (SnCl2) dihydrate instead of sodium borohydride. Watkins proposes a reversal exposure step which might be more practicable for sheet film than for 120 or 135 format.

    Washing appears to be done with water.

    Accurate thermostatization and a pH-meter with proper calibration buffers are as essential as a good laboratory balance; if an analytical balance with 1 mg resolution is not available, higher concentrated stock solutions might be prepared and the appropriate volume dosed with a graduated pipet or cylinder. Use a pipetting aid and never pipet with the mouth, wear a laboratory coat, closed shoes, gloves and protective eyewear always when working with solid alkali reagents and alkaline solutions (carbonates, phosphates, hydroxides), acids (acetic acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid) and all the other organic chemicals (developers, stabilizers, formaldehyde etc.), have washing bottles or tap water ready to wash off spilled chemicals from skin and clothing, keep the darkroom clean, well ventilated and do not inhale vapors - I am a chemist and know about the risks, dangers and hazards. Phenylenediamine-based color developers can induce allergies. Solid sulfites will develop toxic sulfur dioxide vapor upon contact with concentrated acids. Always add concentrated acid slowly into the water.

    I am really tempted to try large format photography...

    Always work at your own risk, but have fun!

    Processing Tempera
    Step Time ture volume
    1st development 4 min 38° C. 37 L
    1st washing 2 min 38° C. 16 L
    Reversal 2 min 38° C. 17 L
    Color development 6 min 38° C. 30 L
    Pre-bleaching 2 min 38° C. 19 L
    Bleaching 6 min 38° C. 30 L
    Fixing 4 min 38° C. 29 L
    2nd washing 4 min 38° C. 35 L
    Final rinsing 1 min 25° C. 19 L

    The compositions of the processing solutions were as follows.
    < 1st developer>
    Nitrilo-N,N,N-trimethylene 1.5 g
    phosphonic acid ·
    pentasodium salt
    Diethylenetriamine 2.0 g
    pentaacetic acid ·
    pentasodium salt
    Sodium sulfite 30 g
    Hydroquinone potassium 20 g
    Potassium carbonate 15 g
    Potassium bicarbonate 12 g
    1-phenyl-4-methyl-4- 2.5 g
    Potassium bromide 2.5 g
    Potassium thiocyanate 1.2 g
    Potassium iodide 2.0 mg
    Diethyleneglycol 13 g
    Water to make 1,000 mL
    pH 9.60

    The pH was adjusted by sulfuric acid or potassium hydroxide.

    < Reversal solution>
    Nitrilo-N,N,N-trimethylene 3.0 g
    phosphonic acid
    pentasodium salt
    Stannous chloride dihydrate 1.0 g
    p-aminophenol 0.1 g
    Sodium hydroxide 8 g
    Glacial acetic acid 15 mL
    Water to make 1,000 mL
    pH 6.00

    The pH was adjusted by acetic acid or sodium hydroxide.

    < Color developer>
    Nitrilo-N,N,N-trimethylene 2.0 g
    phosphonic acid ·
    pentasodium salt
    Sodium sulfite 7.0 g
    Trisodium phosphate · 36 g
    Potassium bromide 1.0 g
    Potassium iodide 90 mg
    Sodium hydroxide 12.0 g
    Citrazinic acid 0.5 g
    N-ethyl-N-(ß-methanesulfon 10 g
    aminoaniline · 3/2 sulfuric
    acid · monohydrate (CD3)
    3,6-dithiaoctane-1,8-diol 1.0 g
    Water to make 1,000 mL
    pH 11.80

    The pH was adjusted by sulfuric acid or potassium hydroxide.

    < Pre-bleaching solution>
    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic 8.0 g
    acid · disodium salt ·
    Sodium sulfite 6.0 g
    1-thioglycerol 0.4 g
    Formaldehyde sodium 30 g
    bisulfite adduct
    Water to make 1,000 mL
    pH 6.30

    The pH was adjusted by acetic acid or sodium hydroxide.

    < Bleaching solution>
    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic 2.0 g
    acid·disodium salt·
    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic 120 g
    Potassium bromide 100 g
    Ammonium nitrate 10 g
    Water to make 1,000 mL
    pH 5.70

    The pH was adjusted by nitric acid or sodium hydroxide.

    < Fixing solution>
    Ammonium thiosulfate 80 g
    Sodium sulfite 5.0 g
    Sodium bisulfite 5.0 g
    Water to make 1,000 mL
    pH 6.60

    The pH was adjusted by acetic acid or ammonia water.

    < Stabilizer>
    1,2-benzoisothiazoline-3-one 0.02 g
    Polyoxyethylene-p-monononyl 0.3 g
    phenylether (note: Nonoxynol, a detergent)
    (average polymerization degree = 10)
    Polymaleic acid 0.1 g
    (average molecular weight = 2,000)
    Water to make 1,000 mL
    pH 7.0
  2. Photo Engineer

    Photo Engineer Subscriber

    Apr 19, 2005
    Rochester, NY
    Multi Format
    Heinz, these are basically the Kodak formulas. Kodak uses stannous chloride and has for over 20 years. The calgon replacement is commercially available in the Dequest family of sequestrants.

    The only difference is the stabilzer in which Kodak uses a proprietary chemical and photo flo as part of the mixture. And, some of the chemicals in the process are only available in huge lots at exorbitant prices.

  3. Discpad

    Discpad Member

    Aug 20, 2007
    Med. Format Pan
    I'm surprised that Fuji is not using Miconazole as an anti-fungal, since they use it in the C41-RA stabilizer.
  4. John Shriver

    John Shriver Member

    Sep 8, 2006
    35mm RF
    Looks to be a C-41 formula on columns 79 and 80.